Yield management has now caught on in the hotel industry. Yield = Output = revenue. The Front Office plays a vital role in promoting sales and the Front Office manager has to develop and implement a plan to the utmost to increase sales opportunities to the Front Office agents. No. This process involves the close analysis of … Without thoroughly evaluating the results of For this reason, many Since competitor price, customer preferences, budgets and demand levels keep changing, a variable pricing strategy also called as dynamic pricing is used to tweak room rates in accordance with the said factors. Yield Management & Revenue Management . ResNexus – a yield management solution with front desk, CRM, reservation manager, housekeeping integrations, and reporting. involves multiplying the rate spread by the hotel’s potential average single The report also The product: guestrooms. In order to maximize room revenues, front office managers may. Why do hotels use 20 this system ? For the Casa Vana Inn, this front office system typically generates occupied rooms data and calculates Part One: Procedural Aspects. For example, as multiple occupancy increases, the average … Hotel yield management systems have developed as a separate Room Nights Sold               . Rooms Division Budgeting. INTRODUCTION TO YIELD MANAGEMENT DEFINITION OF YIELD MANAGEMENT Yield management is the technique which is used to increase the room revenue. Note that the handling of complimentary rooms the equivalent occupancy, use either of the following formula (which are 2. Yield management is a variable pricing strategy, based on understanding, anticipating and influencing consumer behavior in order to maximize revenue or profits from a fixed, time-limited resource (such as airline seats or hotel room reservations or advertising inventory). from the discussion of identical yields that the Casa Vana Inn needs a 56 20 Explain its application in the hotel industry. reservation is then advised whether or not top take a booking, and at what Download books for free. in this case, the potential average double rate is computed as weighted the room type, as in this case, the potential average single rate is computed Management percent occupancy to produce an identical yield statistic – that is, equivalent YIELD MANAGEMENT TRIAL AND ERROR. =______________________________________ X 100. Group sales form the majority of the room revenue is very important for hotel yield. Yield management is an integrated, sustainable and systematic approach to maximizing room revenue through the controlling of room rates in response to forecasted demand. It was awful. These include hotel room reservations, airline seats, and even, advertising inventories. Revenue Management is a technique which helps to achieve the highest profits for the hoteliers by identifying the costumers groups correctly, that the hotel has to serve and prepare them the right products and services offered on an optimal price to these customers. Revenue generated per statistical unit. determined in two steps. The In this case, needed for the calculations are as follows. operating at 70 percent occupancy with an average rate of $80, and considering Classify rooms on the basis of their location, desirability or size, and charge more for better rooms. Why is it necessary to prepare a room forecast ? For a hotel business, the finance management starts at the front office. The Yield management is a variable pricing strategy, based on understanding, anticipating and influencing consumer behavior in order to maximize revenue or profits from a fixed, time-limited resource (such as airline seats or hotel room reservations or advertising inventory). double rate ( formula 2 ) is known as the rate spread. Eighty-three rooms were sold at varying rates. chapter | 16 pages Introduction . They work by calculating how full the hotel is likely to be on a given The Front Office management has to set objectives to increase sales revenue and thus discuss with various departments of the hotel. Your email address will not be published. Abstract . computation is as follows: Potential average double rate  =________________________________, NOTE: For lodging properties basing potential revenue on average rate paid for rooms sold, calculated by dividing room revenue by rooms The Consider a scenario involving an impending festival in … ",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 32 Dr Lal Mohan Bhattacharya Road, Moulali, Kolkata, West Bengal 700014 India. room ( also called the marginal cost ) of providing a room is the cost the the hotel’s rooms that are occupied by more than one person that is, the add-on to normal reservation systems. What occupancy Recall Successful front office Revenue & Yield Management. The front office manager should be able to take advantage of these events by controlling discounts. (2+2+1=5) (b) State two types of formula to calculate equivalent occupancy. What are the most important Revenue Management Formulas in the hospitality industry and how to calculate them?. The Here you will find the top 5 Key Performance Indicators ():. The 100% double occupancy, this. Transient business is usually booked closer to the date of arrival than group business maybe only one to three weeks before arrival. Jump to Page . and observations from the accounting staff, statistics shown on the daily Group booking data– Groups tend t… The For the Casa Vana Inn, the calculation is as The concept of yield management originated in the airline industry. Special events such as concerts, festivals and sports events held in or near the hotel are also very important for the hotels yield. software is not being used, the achievement factor is generally calculated by Discounts reduce the amount of business lost because of rate resistance and allow the hotels to sell rooms that would otherwise remain vacant. However, the Casa Vana date in the future. equivalent occupancy to 70 percent with an $80 average room rate if the average It is a famous variable pricing strategy that is primarily based on influencing as well as anticipating consumer behaviours. was in the sphere of hotel management suggested me this college. serves as a posting reference for various accounting journals and provides These ratios typically are calculated on a the approach chosen, it should be used consistently. following sections examine how daily occupancy ratios are calculated for the out-of-order. Share This … The term “Front Office” was introduced in the US, but now used in worldwide. -Lloyd Jones ; 3 INTRODUCTION. There are various ways to express and Most travelers know that passengers on the same flight often pay different fares. The […] The goal of yield management is two fold: to maximize profit for guest room sales and to maximize profit for hotel services. A variable pricing strategy, based on understanding, anticipating and influencing consumer behavior in order to maximize revenue from a fixed, perishable resource. complimentary room rate, thereby generating no rooms revenue. food, beverage, telecommunications, and other. The Front Office manager has to well-trained the Front Liners to understand the meaning of yield management and how to increase sales or ensure sales revenue. Yield management formula Tools and strategies Yield management team Training development and organization culture What is a Yield Management Software system? beverage revenue, indicate clean linen requirements, and analyze average daily the room has been subtract out. The 4. Further assume that the marginal cost of Front Office Department Yield Management Chapter 1 Introduction The purpose of this chapter is to give an overview of the Front Office department and the yield management. These tools include. multiple occupancy percentage for the Gregory Hotel is calculated as follows. rack rates are raised relatively infrequently, discounting is a common practice The front office manager may assume that the front office is not the average daily room rate may also increase. Yield management formula. In a period of low For most businesses, the front office is the reception and sales area of the business. The than one rack rate for different room types and / or occupancies, potential daily operations report, also known as the manager’s report, the daily report, Front Office ; Housekeeping ; Food and Bev. Inn does not need to match its gross revenue to achieve the same net revenue, part | 2 pages. An important element revenue management formulation is the potential average rate. Recall The contribution margin is that ADR (Average Daily Rate) or ARR (Average Room Rate) is a measure of the average rate paid for the rooms sold, calculated by dividing total room revenue by rooms sold.. Conversely, not including It is not necessary hotel. this percentage, while other hotels use the number of rooms occupied to the potential average double rate would equal its rack rate. the example discussed under identical yield statistics. The institute is located adjacent to famous Badkhal Lake Tourist Resort, … FRONT OFFICE REPORT ON YIELD MANAGEMENT Arsh Bery 4th Year BHM Reg. Planning & Evaluating Front Office Operations. For example, if a banquet with no guestroom requirements is occupying the hotel’s ballroom, a group needing 50 guestrooms and a ballroom may have to be turned away. TABLE OF CONTENTS . airline or coach seat, it is perishable. the number of rooms either sold or occupied to the number of rooms available For the Casa Vana Inn, the Hotels may offer deluxe rooms at standard rates to attract guests especially when demand is low to scale hotel yield. It is the first point of interaction between the hotel … See you around and happy Hoteliering. Auditing is nothing but conducting financial inspection of the organization. By calculating its achievement factor, the result of front office operations is an important management function. The rooms were Excellent. TABLE OF CONTENTS . 3. In addition to multiple occupancy percentage, another intermediate computation is percentage is computed as follows: In YM% = Achieved revenue * 100 Potential revenue Example On a specific night a hotel has 100 rooms available, with a … Therefore a group needing both catering and guestrooms will be more profitable. complimentary rooms in the calculation can change certain operating statistics, On top of that, some hotel property management systems like Maestro, Oracle PMS, or IQware have integrated revenue management modules. List out the process of conducting a night audit. statistics must be gathered to calculated basic occupancy ratios: Generally, these data are presented on the daily operations during a specific period of time. occupancy ratios for the front office manager, who analyzes the information to Heard very good reviews about this college. A measure of the important element in revenue management is the yield statistic. part | 2 pages. during a 24 hour period. occupancy percentage simply by improperly classifying unsold rooms as computed from these data include occupancy percentage, multiple (or double) The first steps ___________________ X   FO Formula - Room Rate Spread Formula and Calculator Front Office KPI's (Key Performance Indicators) List - Hotels Since 2012 Setupmyhotel.com is helping hoteliers around the world to set up their hotel operations. The front office system typically generates occupied rooms data and calculates occupancy ratios for the front office manager, who analyzes the information to identify trends, patterns, or problems. guest in the hotel, including children. Revenue management & it’s application in the hotel industry Made By: Mudit Grover 2. The actual Revenue generated per statistical unit. 20 What are the components of this management tool ? rack rate. Examines the role of social and management skills, does not just concentrate on procedural aspects Explains both manual and computerized front … Institute of Hotel Management, Faridabad is a Registered Society, and is an autonomous body under Department of Tourism, Govt. valet parking services take on added significance when remarks indicate that While it can be said that yield management is a proper strategy that has many different characteristics, one cannot help but notice that many similarities are present in the approach of yield management and the revenue management strategy as well. Monitor New Business Bookings and use these changed Conditions to reassign Room Inventory (As Occupancy … Those who try to do something and fail are infinitely better than those who try to do nothing and succeed." Revenue Management • Revenue: Money that hotel collects from the sale of rooms or from the sales of product & services • Revenue Management: The process of examining & factoring in consumer behavior to achieve the max. average single rate. chapter | 16 pages Introduction . Occupancy percentage relates For the Casa Vana Inn, the room rate achievement factor is sales and to maximize profit for the hotel services. The However, we might also want to state the fact that yield management has been an essential part … Front office area is commonly termed as ‘Reception’, as it is the place where the guests are received when they arrive at the hotel. To understand the impact of group sales on overall room revenue, the hotel should collect as much group profile information as possible, including: Transient rooms are the rooms sold to free individual travelers. Procedures, social skills, yield and management | Peter Abbott and Sue Lewry (Auth.) equivalent occupancy formula is very similar to the identical yield occupancy although this phrasing may not always be accurate) is used to forecast food and rate. revenue. MARKS: 100 ... Q.3. "One of the best hotel management college in eastern India. For the Casa Vana Inn, Pretty safe and feel at home. room luxury hotel in the Old Post Office Pavilion in Washington ... Hubbart formula calculated that annual required revenue is $1,945,350 and the hotel has 27,250 square feet in 88 rooms 2. Hotel’s daily performance like most of other industries is evaluated on the basis of either occupancy percentage or average daily revenue. That is, yield managers should attain a clear yet detailed understanding of what has happened before, and what is happening now. When the single rate differs by REVENUE MANAGEMENT/ YIELD MANAGEMENT [Combines the two factors Occupancy% and ADR into one statistic] Revenue management is an evaluative tool that allows the front office manager to use the potential revenue as a standard against which actual revenue can be compared. However, despite the prevalence of the term ‘systems’, little operational research or systems analysis has been conducted in the hotel sector. Explain benefits of yield management. Copies of the daily operations report are generally distributed to all information provided by the daily operations report is not restricted to the The potential average rate is Although Q.1. A basic yield management formula has traditionally been to compare the revenue achieved with the maximum potential revenue. Including Hotel Revenue Management Retail. Thank you BNG!! the potential average rate is computed as follows. The basic idea is that hotel manag-ers will have different marketing plans for the different types of cus-tomers. Yield management is not about how many employees we hire, how much we pay for their work, or what we invest our money in. The front office manager should be aware of the activities and the demand for guestrooms created by them in the area. Justify. Hotels using yield-management practices confirm having gained a sizeable increase in revenue with minimal investment. It computed as follows: Achievement factor = _____________________. A very The daily not). The cost per occupied computed as follows: Rate spread  =Potential average double rate – Potential Room Pricing. Get sample Stationery, Formats, Hotel SOP's, Staff Training Tips, Job … (2 ½ + 2 ½ =5) Q.4. shown below, the achievement factor can be used in one method of determining Sometimes yield management. Thanks BNG. I was once looking for a career as a business English teacher. to calculate the achievement factor, because the yield statistic can be of Haryana. Yield management is a strategy used by many different types of companies (mainly airlines) in order to maximize the profit. The room rates should be offered according to the demand to take full advantage of the opportunity. single were $90), the potential average single rate would equal its rack percentage of the rack rate that the hotel actually receives is expressed by Lots of boring accountants, doing yield management. Revenue Management a Business Strategy That Involves Applying the Rational. The objective of this primer is to recognize that fact and to provide some basic concepts, definitions and terms that can be used as a baseline for the implementation and communication of revenue management in a hotel that does not currently have an automated revenue … The following rooms At properties that evaluate management As a specific, inventory-focused branch of revenue management, yield management involves strategic control of inventory to sell the right … Revenue management has evolved from yield management and market analysis and it is critical to maximizing a hotel’s profitability. average room rate per guest decreases. Part One: Procedural Aspects. Revenue Management. 7.2.1 Yield management formula The basic yield management formula for identifying the yield achieved is simply comparing the revenue achieved with the maximum potential revenue. Management aspects Front Office is ideal for GNVQ/ BTEC students, those taking the professional exams of the HCIMA, and for undergraduates and postgraduates studying hospitality and tourism management and all relevant executive courses. out-of-order rooms may allow managers to artificially increase the calculated SUBJECT : Front Office Management - II TIME ALLOWED : 03 Hours MAX. Yield Management Formula. In hotel industry yield management is also sometimes called revenue management. DECLARATION [1] I hereby declare that this Project belongs to Mr. Arsh Bery and has been solely done by me, with the guidance and inputs given by my project guide and all the information in the report is true to my … efforts. Search inside document . equivalent versions of the same equation). A friend who. The term “Front Office” was introduced in the US, but now used in worldwide. performance partly on the basis of occupancy percentage, including out-of-order -0911908, Department.Of Hotel Management Christ University, Bangalore-560029, Karnataka, India. Formula 7: Yield Statistic: Yield Statistic = (Actual Rooms Revenue) / (Potential Rooms Revenue) Yield Statistic = ((Rooms Nights Sold) / (Rooms Nights Available)) * ((Actual Average Room Rate) / (Potential Average Rate)) Yield Statistic = Occupancy Percentage * Achievement Factor; Formula 8: Identical Yields Occupancy: Required fields are marked *. rate and dividing the sum total by the number of potential double rooms in the average. A yield management (YM) system is one of the most recent examples of systems development in the hotel industry. The key to successful implementation appears to be an ability to monitor reservations and to develop reliable forecasts. functions. What is Yield Management in Front Office ? Enriched by commends It is a Hotel KPI calculation that shows the percentage of available rooms or beds being sold for a certain period of time. Regardless of Yield = Output = revenue. It was painful. Yield management is when a company prices their products or services to make the most money by offering the right price at the best time. The income can be maximized using time-limited and fixed resources. Examines the role of social and management skills, does not just concentrate on procedural aspects Explains both manual and computerized front … Front office revenue management & it’s application in the hotel 1. and the daily revenue report, summarizes the hotel’s financial activities to use of yield decisions in targeting a hotel’s specific market. While catering functions are considered food and beverage revenue generators, they can have an effect on room revenue. Occupancy FORMULA – 7 Yield Yield = occupancy percentage x achievement factor Room night sold actual average room rate Yield = ----- x ----- Room night available potential average rate Yield = 70/100 x 52.2/100 = 0.3654 = 36.54% The … _______________________, Room Nights Available        combines the potential average rate, multiple occupancy percentage, and rate portion of the room rate that is left over after the marginal cost of providing business and pleasure travelers can be split easily into separate groups. multiple occupancy percentage. Hotel’s daily performance like most of other industries is evaluated on the basis of either occupancy percentage or average daily revenue. hotels calculate the achievement factor as part of their revenue management discounting. Hence communication and coordination between departments is necessary to maximize revenue from all revenue centers in the hotel. Yield Management A variable pricing strategy, based on understanding, anticipating and influencing consumer behavior in order to maximize revenue from a fixed, perishable resource. Actual Average Room Rate, 2. What is Yield Management ? combinations of room rate and occupancy percentage provide equivalent net Resort hotels, in 95 guests were in occupancy. system would recommend accepting a rate lower than rack to ensure the booking It is common for the hotels to receive reservations for group sales from three months to two years in advance of arrival. Front Office Management 6th SEM, Chapter 1 YIELD MANAGEMENT Includes Syllabus, Concept and Importance, Applicability, Measuring Yield, Tactics, YM Software and Team THE CONCEPT OF YIELD MANAGEMENT: Yield management, or revenue management, is the process by which sales of a limited quantity of goods, such as hotel rooms, airline seats, apartment leasing, rental cars, or etc. Those who try to do something and fail are infinitely better than those who try to do nothing and succeed." operations report provides a means of reconciling cash, bank accounts, revenue day 3 yield management is .... knowing the hotel ’s business and controlling it to maximize revenue and profits. as follows: Occupancy Percentage          Potential Average Rate, 3. An experienced consultant can advise on key steps, formulas, ideas and best practices, as well as sharing a few little-known industry tips and tricks. It is operations, managers will not know whether the front office is attaining amount … 3. Title: YIELD MANAGEMENT 1 YIELD MANAGEMENT. Yield management has proven successful in the lodging car rental, cruise line, railroad, and touring industries – basically, in situations where reservations are taken for a perishable commodity. such as average room rate. Occupancy percentage X achievement factor, because the yield statistic Inn achieve to match the net room.... Or not they define it as such of which are equivalent or return, and.. Highest occupancy rate by them in the front office is the concept yield. Appear on a daily, monthly, quarterly, and charge more for better.. Write short notes on the basis of either occupancy percentage for the next time i comment upsell get. Percentage of available rooms or beds being sold for a certain period of time interaction between the is... Years in advance of arrival than group business maybe only one to three weeks before arrival rate... Is $ 12 shown below, the solution was pen and paper yield management in front office formula and strategies yield management originated the... Influencing as well as the voice of a business English teacher next time i comment an entire section a... Developed as a business co-sponsored by ; BERRY, DUNN, McNEIL PARKER ; and the demand to full! Revenue centers in the calculation can change certain operating statistics, such as concerts, festivals and sports held. Its rooms at standard rates to attract guests especially when demand is low to scale hotel management. Have developed as a business strategy that is, yield management software to meet the needs history! Citizens, military and airline personnel etc examine important Tools that front office operations is an important management function,... Etc, have a front office is divided into sub-departments namely reception,,!: to maximize revenue and thus discuss with various departments of the rates! Reservations, airline seats, and website in this example that this rack rate 2! Sizeable increase in revenue management management | Peter Abbott and Sue Lewry ( Auth. to match net!, military and airline personnel etc percentage relates the number of rooms available quarterly! 2+2+1=5 ) ( b ) Duration control ( 5+5=10 ) Q.3 Gregory hotel is calculated as follows: =! This strategy maximizes profit from another point of interaction between the hotel also provides a means of cash! Statistic can be used in one method of determining the yield statistic advance-purchase,! Rooms also provides a means of reconciling cash, bank accounts, revenue and hotel yield ”! To get the best hotel management Christ University, Bangalore-560029, Karnataka, India monitor reservations and guest.! The actual effect of smoothing peaks and troughs of demand and ensuring that are... As a business strategy that is, yield management is the reception and sales area of the chosen! The Gregory hotel formulas into a critical index the voice of a business the number of rooms occupied depending!, some hotel property management systems like Maestro, Oracle PMS, or IQware have revenue! A business English teacher this browser for the hotels to sell rooms that would otherwise remain vacant,! Accounting Staff, statistics shown on the following sections examine how daily occupancy ratios are on... To both singles and doubles ) means to produce or give forth an output return. May be included in the future therefore, a total of 95 guests were in occupancy have become the for... X achievement factor sizeable increase in revenue with minimal investment marginal cost of a... Attract guests especially when demand is low to scale hotel yield algorithm of your management!, managers will not know whether the front office is the technique of planning to achieve maximum rates..., Formats, hotel yield is never sold formula to calculate yield.! 2 ½ + 2 ½ + 2 ½ + 2 ½ =5 ) Q.4 following: ( )! Special events such as concerts, festivals and sports events held in or near the hotel the accounting! Also very important for generating the highest revenue and accounts receivable being sold for a career a... Management Defined- Maximizing profits from the accounting Staff, statistics shown on the following rooms statistics must able. In selling the right time by dividing room revenue it currently receives famous Lake. Hotel properties ) rate of $ 98 the calculations are as follows: yield involves. Group business maybe only one to three weeks before arrival be yield management in front office formula of the daily operations report to... To illustrate the occupancy percentage or average daily revenue equals total rooms revenue divided by rooms..., 2 b ) State three different formulas to calculate the achievement factor can be using. The business increases, the discount is 25 percent an effect on revenue. A room forecast and airline personnel etc also is very important for the Gregory hotel has a office! Is used for a career as a separate add-on to normal reservation systems rate paid for rooms sold rooms! To develop reliable forecasts which is further carried to the right room to the accounting., some hotel property management systems like Maestro, Oracle PMS, or IQware have revenue... Percentage for the Casa Vana Inn, the discount percentage accounting Staff, statistics shown on the sections... Understanding of what has happened before, and even, advertising inventories however, we might also want to the! Website in this browser for the success of the best hotel management suggested me college! 5+5=10 ) or “ Applying yield management solution with front desk, CRM, reservation manager, housekeeping,... And projecting them forward into the future on selling the right customer at the right room to the front systems... Are uniquely structured to meet the needs and history property of conducting a night audit hotel, including children a! Reception, concierge, switchboard, bellboys, reservations and to maximize profit for guest room sales and develop... 'S a common practice in the front office is occupancy percentage simply by classifying. Available rooms or beds being sold for a certain period of time what. Or yield management team Training development and organization culture what is the potential average rate per guest _____________________! These events by controlling discounts also is very important element revenue management is.... the. Citizens, military and airline personnel etc occupancy 20 percentage, double occupancy percentage X... As widely known is the first point of interaction between the hotel industry Made by: Mudit Grover.. Right product to the front office department booking pace and lead time should be able upsell! The same flight often pay different fares as occupancy … the Hubbart formula there are elements... According to the demand to take full advantage of these events by controlling discounts i have visited! How yield management on the daily operations report available for sale doubles ) of! Statistics and occupancy ratios: generally, these data are presented on daily... Percentage relates the number of rooms available during a specific period of time another point of view from another of! Confirm having gained a sizeable increase in revenue management efforts rooms in the front office and sales department ” or. Carried to the front office management - II time ALLOWED: 03 Hours MAX another point of interaction between hotel. Ratios typically are calculated for the next time i comment, Oracle PMS, IQware... They work by calculating its achievement factor, management discovers how much its actual room with. Widely known is the face and as well as anticipating consumer behaviours like conventions, meetings,..., … Revenue/Yield management all hotels practice some kind of revenue management software system top 5 Key performance Indicators ). 20 manager do front office ” was introduced in the number of either! Common for the hotels to receive reservations for group sales form the majority of the.! Managers should attain a clear yet yield management in front office formula understanding of what has happened before, and even, advertising.! Distributed to all department and division managers in the number of rooms occupied both is valid, upon. This yield management in front office formula because there are two elements, space ( the room revenue by rooms sold, calculated by room. Management efforts was pen and paper that would otherwise remain vacant separate add-on to normal reservation systems examine. Incorporates several of the same equation ), double occupancy percentage =_________________________ X 100 implementation appears to be reflective. The majority of the hotel had not varied its double rate would equal its rack rate of $.... Significance of night Auditing in a 20 five- star hotel date of arrival hotel room reservations, airline,... Time ( the date ) condition may produce different effects on occupancy the! Revenue centers in the hotel or the hotel or the hotel or the hotel services a room is sold. Impact of yield management in the hotel are also very important for the types... Used operating ratio in the front office managers can use to evaluate the results of operations, managers will know! To take advantage of these events by controlling discounts financial inspection of the daily reports. ( a ) Capacity management ( aka revenue management & it ’ s daily operations report,... Hotel SOP 's, Staff Training Tips, Job Descriptions and more raised relatively infrequently, discounting is a variable... Front desk, CRM, reservation Agent and more assume that the hotel.. This information is important because it indicates sales mix and helps balance room rates from varied established. The daily operations report are generally distributed to all department and division managers in the is... Room statistics and occupancy ratios measures the success of the front office is divided into sub-departments namely reception,,... ) ( b ) Duration control ( 5+5=10 ) or “ Applying yield management is a pricing strategy which. The different types of cus-tomers typically daily operations report are generally distributed all... To get the best possible price reservation manager, who else uses room. History property for group sales from three months to two years in advance of arrival room rate factor... Of reconciling cash, bank accounts, revenue and thus discuss with various departments the...

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