compression forces push mass over another; doesn't reach ground surface. 18. What is the cause of earthquakes on the Hawaiian Islands? 80 bridges and 1000 unreinforced masonry buildings and 2m tsunami. How do we know that Earth has a core, given that we cannot drill a hole that deep? What is laying the foundation for the next major earthquake in Puget Sound? Seattle Tacoma Area, Washington has had: (M1.5 or greater) 0 earthquakes in the past 24 hours 2 earthquakes in the past 7 days; 12 earthquakes in the past 30 days convection cells push the plates and they push back and get stuck and the pressure builds and it breaks releasing the tension Why dont people want to try to create smaller earthquakes to prevent bigger earthquakes? 27. 4. Why may the next earthquake on the Seattle Fault cause "stunning levels of death and destruction"? 17. ; who witnessed this quake? If we define the energy difference between a Richter-style magnitude 1 earthquake and a magnitude 2 earthquake as equal to 30 screaming cheerleaders, the energy difference between a magnitude 5 earthquake and a magnitude 8 earthquake is 30x30x30 screaming cheerleaders. What impact did the Joshua Tree, Landers, and Big Bear earthquakes have on the San Andreas fault? charged for the felony of manslaughter for reassuring the public. 2. Looking at the state-by-state report of earthquakes over magnitude 3.5 from the USGS, Alaska amounts to 57 percent of all earthquakes in the United States. elastic rebound-land masses continuously move, energy builds up and stored in an elastic strain, when they become overpowering , the rocks rupture to move forward and catch up or pass the fault. Was the directivity of the Landers Earthquake moving toward or away from the San Andreas Fault? Most earthquakes occur along or near plate boundaries. What is our success rate at forecasting earthquakes on longer timescales? What is the primary tool that society uses to protect its citizens from death and injury due to earthquakes? Will they have the same density, or will A or B be more dense, or is there not enough information to tell? Why is the Mercali intensity scale useful? How did the Landers Earthquake differ from most earthquakes? The main cause of the earthquake is volcanic eruptions. Earthquakes are caused by the sudden movement of earths plates can either slide past each other or converg. What feature of Earth's interior are deep-focus earthquakes associated with? What is this process called? What is the cause of most, if not all, earthquakes in the crust (i.e., shallow-focus earthquakes)? CREDIT: ELAINE THOMPSON/AP When an earthquake shakes loosely-packed (unconsolidated) fine/medium-grained sandy material that is saturated with water, the grains tend to reorganize into a more tightly packed mass and the excess water is pushed upward. Why do some tsunamis get to be such tall waves when they reach the shoreline? An earthquake on the Seattle Fault poses the greatest risk to Seattle because: The Seattle Fault Zone extends east-west through the middle of the city. 33. For comparison, a magnitude 6.0 earthquake in 2014 in Napa, California, was felt only as far as 250 miles from the epicenter. 4. What are the 3 classes of fault-movement timing identified by T.K. 1. Not surprisingly, the 10 states with the most earthquakes are in the western U.S. The two main causes of the earthquakes are the Tectonic activity linked with the plate margins and the faults in these plates. Where is the epicenter of an earthquake located? What is an example of a seismic body wave? 23. Give 3 reasons why the cities of Memphis, St. Louis, and Nashville are particularly in danger from future earthquakes on the Reelfoot Rift. An earthquake is caused by a sudden slip on a fault. 21. 5. As a Rayleigh wave moves across the earth’s surface, the earth moves up and down like an ocean wave. 20. 30. Cascadia Subduction Zone. We know that the density of the mantle increases with depth because of the time it takes for a P wave to travel through the mantle from an earthquake to a distant seismograph. ...Seattle? ; what rather unique events, Hebgan Lake (landslide) ; Boura peak (range went up, valley went down). years ago creating small fractures. 2001: At 10:54 a.m. on February 28, 2001, a deep earthquake centered near the Nisqually Delta northwest of Olympia startles the entire Puget Sound region and causes more than $1 billion in … Wastewater disposal wells typically operate for longer durations and inject much more fluid than is injected during the hydraulic fracturing process, making them more likely to induce earthquakes. In the process of liquifaction, an earthquake shakes loosely-packed (unconsolidated) fine/medium-grained sandy material that is saturated with water and the grains tend to reorganize into a more tightly packed mass and the excess water is pushed upward, resulting in phenomena such as sand volcanoes, ground-surface cracking and subsidence. The energy can be released by elastic strain, gravity, chemical reactions, or even the motion of massive bodies. 28. 16. Give 3 reasons why Salt Lake City, Provo, and Ogden are in particular danger of a large earthquake. 19. If we define the energy difference between a Richter-style magnitude 1 earthquake and a magnitude 2 earthquake as equal to 30 screaming cheerleaders, what is the energy difference between a magnitude 5 earthquake and a magnitude 8 earthquake? What is the minimum number of geographically separate seismographs that are necessary to locate the epicenter of an earthquake? These actions are the cause of volcanic earthquakes. The city of Seattle is very susceptible to earthquake-related damage because it ____. When the stress on the edge overcomes the friction, there is an earthquake that releases energy in waves that travel through the … Imagine two buildings of similar construction: a green building with a foundation built on hard bedrock and a blue building with a foundation built on soft sandy deposits. What does the time difference between the first arrival of P and S waves tell us about an earthquake? The primary cause of human death and injury during an earthquake is building collapse. A seismic body wave is an elastic wave that is able to pass through the solid interior of Earth. What is the kind of information used to determine the Mercali intensity of an earthquake in a given location? Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Why were scientists and engineers in Italy given a six-year prison sentence? 3. 10. Earthquake Causes and Characteristics Page 3-11 Rayleigh waves. ...Dallas? What is a body wave? Magma causes rock to liquify and rocks volume expands neighboring brittle rock fractures to make room. 9. Earthquakes can cause the ground to shake violently, creating hazards, such as rockslides, falling objects and collapsed buildings. What is the primary cause of human death and injury during an earthquake? 11. What has created the Basin and Range province; what kind of faults occur here? Why is the St. Lawrence River Valley subject to earthquakes; why is the most active zone near Charlesvois? What are the 3 things you should do if an earthquake happens? How much has the state of Nevada grown in the last 30 million years? Earthquakes occur on faults - strike-slip earthquakes occur on strike-slip faults, normal earthquakes occur on normal faults, and thrust earthquakes occur on thrust or reverse faults. 26. We know that Earth has a core because of the way seismic waves are reflected and refracted off of the core-mantle boundary. How can the periodicity of earthquakes be determined by paleoseismologists studying the sediments in sag ponds (2 ways)? What unique events accompanied the New Madrid earthquakes? That magnitude 6.8 quake is the most recent one to cause significant damage and injuries in the Pacific Northwest. Briefly name and explain the popular explanation for how faults move. Earthquakes I. Earthquakes are vibrations of the Earth produced by the release of energy during a sudden rupture of the Earth. This can result in sand volcanoes, ground-surface cracking and subsidence. Rockwell? Earthquakes are caused by the sudden release of energy within some limited region of the rocks of the Earth. Particle motion in an S wave is perpendicular to the direction in which the wave propagates, because an S wave is a shear wave. The plate boundaries should be drawn along the areas with large numbers of earthquakes. Get help with your Earthquakes homework. Surface waves cause most of the damage during an earthquake. The recent increase in earthquakes in the central United States is primarily caused by disposal of waste fluids that are a byproduct of oil production. The U.S. Geological Survey reports that a 4.6 magnitude earthquake has rattled the Three Lakes area of Washington state, less than 50 miles northeast of Seattle. Now let’s visit the 3 most dangerous earthquake faults for Seattle one by one: 1. A Seattle Fault quake could be as large as M7.5,160 but less than M7.0 is more probable. Glacial Meltwater paired into Mississippi and Ohio River, eroding huge volcanoes of sediment, so the land rebounded upward , reducing stresses that held underlying faults. When the pressure is released, an earthquake occurs. The time difference between the first arrival of P and S waves at a given seismograph tells us the distance (but not the direction) from that seismograph to the epicenter. The amplitude of the seismic signal recorded by a seismograph gives us information about the magnitude of the earthquake, once the distance to the epicenter is known. Formation … What is sea level spreading. Of the three major flavors of earthquake waves (P, S and surface), which one has a particle motion that is perpendicular to the direction the wave propagates? Primary waves (or P waves) are compressional waves that vibrate in the direction of propagation; think of "push" waves. A study published in the journal Seismological Research Letters this week identified 730 sites where human activity caused earthquakes over the past 150 years. How can humans cause earth quakes (4 ways); be able to provide examples given in book. A collection of Javascript utilities to be incorporated into scientific courseware. There are two types of vibrations produced by earthquakes 1. Scheduled maintenance: Saturday, October 10 from 4–5 PM PT Which building will be shaken more violently, with higher-amplitude seismic waves, during an earthquake? Most of the earthquakes that take place are caused by this activity. Other faults thought capable of producing magnitude ~7 earthquakes include the San Jacinto, Whittier-Elsinore, Newport-Inglewood, Palos Verdes, Malibu Coast, Hollywood, Sierra Madre, Cucamonga, and maybe the Puente Hills faults. 6. Of the three major flavors of earthquake waves (P, S and surface), which one can travel through the interior of the Earth and propagate through liquid, solid and gas? Where are earthquakes most common. Of the three major flavors of earthquake waves (P, S and surface), which one has a particle motion that is parallel to the direction the wave propagates? The Mercali intensity scale for earthquakes is useful in planning the locations of critical and sensitive facilities (hospitals, schools, police stations, fire stations, electrical and water-supply facilities, etc.) Start studying What causes earthquakes. What is unique about the 1886 Charleston Earthquake? Particle motion in a P wave is parallel to the direction in which the wave propagates, because a P wave is a compressional wave. When boiling lava tries to break through the surface of the earth, with the increased pressure of gases, certain movements caused in the earth’s crust. Of the three major flavors of earthquake waves (P, S and surface), which one does not travel (propagate) through a liquid? According to Eric Calais, how may the last Ice Age still be contributing to earthquakes in the Eastern U.S.? There is a significant chance of a damaging earthquake during the next 500 years near Los Angeles, Seattle, Memphis and Salt Lake City.There is little significant chance of a damaging earthquake during the next 500 years near Chicago, New York, Dallas or Waco. because it helps us map the areas that are most seriously affected by earthquakes. ​Tsunamis get to be such tall, broad waves when they reach the shoreline because the entire water column, from the bottom of the ocean to the top, is in motion away from the place where the tsunami was generated, and this huge mass of water builds great waves as the seafloor shallows near the coastline. When magma is injected or removed from the system, surrounding rock will either shift to make room for the injected magma, or fill in a vacated area. A building built on soft, sandy soils will be shaken more violently than a building on hard bedrock, given that the two buildings are the same distance from the epicenter. 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