Electron configuration The arrangements of electrons above the last (closed shell) noble gas. His historical account of the expedition included a description of platinum as being neither separable nor calcinable. Electron Configuration Chart for All Elements in the Periodic Table. Our platinum page has over 260 facts that span 87 different quantities. [46][47], The metal was used by pre-Columbian Americans near modern-day Esmeraldas, Ecuador to produce artifacts of a white gold-platinum alloy. But i am really stumpted on this problem. Scheffer described platinum as being less pliable than gold, but with similar resistance to corrosion. [70], Platinum is a precious metal commodity; its bullion has the ISO currency code of XPT. As is expected, tetracoordinate platinum(II) compounds tend to adopt 16-electron square planar geometries. electron configuration … [29], Large platinum deposits are present in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. An electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons within an atom. During electrorefining of copper, noble metals such as silver, gold and the platinum-group metals as well as selenium and tellurium settle to the bottom of the cell as "anode mud", which forms the starting point for the extraction of the platinum-group metals. PtO2, also known as Adams' catalyst, is used as a hydrogenation catalyst, specifically for vegetable oils. For example, a small box from burial of Shepenupet II was found to be decorated with gold-platinum hieroglyphics. However, the standard notation often yields lengthy electron configurations (especially for elements having a relatively large atomic number). There is a major exception to the normal order of electron configuration at Cr (#24) and Cu (#29). It is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, silverish-white transition metal. Ulloa and Juan found mines with the whitish metal nuggets and took them home to Spain. The real answer comes from relativistic effects, electron correlation, and shielding effects. Edit. ... Electron configuration The arrangements of electrons above the last (closed shell) noble gas. As platinum is a catalyst in the manufacture of the silicone rubber and gel components of several types of medical implants (breast implants, joint replacement prosthetics, artificial lumbar discs, vascular access ports, etc. Watchmakers appreciate the unique properties of platinum, as it neither tarnishes nor wears out (the latter quality relative to gold). [51], The first European reference to platinum appears in 1557 in the writings of the Italian humanist Julius Caesar Scaliger as a description of an unknown noble metal found between Darién and Mexico, "which no fire nor any Spanish artifice has yet been able to liquefy". The standard hydrogen electrode also uses a platinized platinum electrode due to its corrosion resistance, and other attributes. [86] The misunderstanding is created by healthcare workers who are using inappropriately the name of the metal as a slang term for platinum-based chemotherapy medications like cisplatin. It is quite possible they did not recognize there was platinum in their gold. Jewellery trade publications advise jewellers to present minute surface scratches (which they term patina) as a desirable feature in attempt to enhance value of platinum products. Most often the native platinum is found in secondary deposits in alluvial deposits. The least stable of these are 165Pt and 166Pt, with half-lives of 260 µs, whereas the most stable is 193Pt with a half-life of 50 years. It has remarkable resistance to corrosion, even at high temperatures, and is therefore considered a noble metal. [32], Treatment of hexachloroplatinic acid with an ammonium salt, such as ammonium chloride, gives ammonium hexachloroplatinate,[16] which is relatively insoluble in ammonium solutions. 188Pt, 191Pt, and 193Pt decay primarily by electron capture. Consequently, platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum. [52], Because the other platinum-family members were not discovered yet (platinum was the first in the list), Scheffer and Sickingen made the false assumption that due to its hardness—which is slightly more than for pure iron—platinum would be a relatively non-pliable material, even brittle at times, when in fact its ductility and malleability are close to that of gold. [6] Compounds containing platinum, such as cisplatin, oxaliplatin and carboplatin, are applied in chemotherapy against certain types of cancer. [28] In 2010, South Africa was the top producer of platinum, with an almost 77% share, followed by Russia at 13%; world production in 2010 was 192,000 kg (423,000 lb). There are four kinds of electron configurations: s, p, d, and f orbitals. Electronic configuration: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 6 4d 10 5s 2 5p 6 4f 14 5d 9 6s 1 >> Back to key information about the … Theflame test is one of the most commonly used analytical processes in chemistry.It is widely used to detect and analyze the presence of certain elements in thegiven salt or compound. Finally, platinum is resistant to hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, whereas other substances are readily attacked by them. For example, it appears that the most stable configuration for atoms of chromium, copper, niobium, molybdenum, ruthenium, rhodium, silver, platinum and gold involves only moving one electron into an s orbital. An atom's electron configuration is a numeric representation of its electron orbitals. For example, the electron configuration of sodium is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1. Platinum is a chemical element with the symbol Pt and atomic number 78. [71][72], In watchmaking, Vacheron Constantin, Patek Philippe, Rolex, Breitling, and other companies use platinum for producing their limited edition watch series. PtAs2), and as end alloys with nickel or copper. Chemistry. Lv 4. In 1752, Henrik Scheffer published a detailed scientific description of the metal, which he referred to as "white gold", including an account of how he succeeded in fusing platinum ore with the aid of arsenic. 190Pt is the least abundant at only 0.01%. [17] The use of platinum(II) acetylacetonate has also been reported. [51], In 1735, Antonio de Ulloa and Jorge Juan y Santacilia saw Native Americans mining platinum while the Spaniards were travelling through Colombia and Peru for eight years. For example, the electron configuration of sodium is 1s22s22p63s1. Fully descriptive writeups. Sources, facts, uses, scarcity (SRI), podcasts, alchemical symbols, videos and images. [56], In 1786, Charles III of Spain provided a library and laboratory to Pierre-François Chabaneau to aid in his research of platinum. [52], Platinum, along with the rest of the platinum-group metals, is obtained commercially as a by-product from nickel and copper mining and processing. [78], Platinum's rarity as a metal has caused advertisers to associate it with exclusivity and wealth. The previous bar was made of platinum in 1799. [49][50] The platinum used in such objects was not the pure element, but rather a naturally occurring mixture of the platinum group metals, with small amounts of palladium, rhodium, and iridium. He succeeded in making malleable platinum by alloying it with gold, dissolving the alloy in hot aqua regia, precipitating the platinum with ammonium chloride, igniting the ammonium chloroplatinate, and hammering the resulting finely divided platinum to make it cohere. RE: electron configuration of platinum 2+electron configuration of platinum 2+? In 1750, after studying the platinum sent to him by Wood, Brownrigg presented a detailed account of the metal to the Royal Society, stating that he had seen no mention of it in any previous accounts of known minerals. Platinum Electronic configuration. [75], 1,000 cubic centimeters of 99.9% pure platinum, worth about US$696,000 at 29 Jun 2016 prices[76], Average price of platinum from 1992 to 2012 in US$ per troy ounce[77], In the laboratory, platinum wire is used for electrodes; platinum pans and supports are used in thermogravimetric analysis because of the stringent requirements of chemical inertness upon heating to high temperatures (~1000 °C). He worked with the platinum by fusing it with arsenic, then later volatilizing the arsenic. ), the possibility that platinum could enter the body and cause adverse effects has merited study. At times, the platinum seemed malleable, but when it was alloyed with iridium, it would be much more brittle. Platinum(IV) oxide, PtO2, also known as 'Adams' catalyst', is a black powder that is soluble in potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions and concentrated acids. Certain non-metals, including phosphorus, silicon and sulfur also combine with platinum. Join Yahoo Answers and get 100 points today. [52] From their first encounters with platinum, the Spanish generally saw the metal as a kind of impurity in gold, and it was treated as such. Although gold is also used in industrial applications, especially in electronics due to its use as a conductor, its demand is not so driven by industrial uses. [14] Platinum drugs are used to treat a wide variety of cancers, including testicular and ovarian carcinomas, melanoma, small-cell and non-small-cell lung cancer, myelomas and lymphomas. I am a retired engineer. I hope someone can help me with an authoritative source. Electron configuration of every element in the periodic table # Element Electron configuration 1 Hydrogen 1s1 2 Helium 1s2 3 Lithium 1s22s1 4 Beryllium 1s22s2 5 Boron 1s22s22p1 6 Carbon 1s 22s22p 7 Nitrogen 1s 22s 2p3 8 Oxygen 1s22s22p4 9 Fluorine 1s22s22p5 10 Neon 1s22s22p6 11 Sodium 1s22s22p63s1 12 Magnesium 1s22s22p63s2 13 Aluminum 1s 22s 2p63s 3p1 14 Silicon … PtBiTe), antimonides (PdSb), and arsenides (e.g. do you mean by saying oxidation number for atoms that have electron configuration? For more info, I invite you to visit http://forums.studentdoctor.net/showthread.php?t=5... can someone explain electron configuration of platinum? [17], In 2007, Gerhard Ertl won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for determining the detailed molecular mechanisms of the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over platinum (catalytic converter). … Primarily, the flame test detects the presence of metalions in a compound, and as ions of each element have a specific characteristicbased in their emission spectrum, the flame test for every element is differentand distinctive. [81], According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, short-term exposure to platinum salts may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, and long-term exposure may cause both respiratory and skin allergies. In the 18th century, platinum's rarity made King Louis XV of France declare it the only metal fit for a king. The case of palladium is even more unexpected because it is the one instance where no electrons are promoted up to the less stable s orbital. Unfortunately, since these are special cases, you will have to memorise (or be aware of) these elements when completing electron configurations. Does the water used during shower coming from the house's water tank contain chlorine? You are free: to share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work; to remix – to adapt the work; Under the following conditions: attribution – You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. Its most important application is in automobiles as a catalytic converter, which allows the complete combustion of low concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons from the exhaust into carbon dioxide and water vapor. According to the older shell atomic model, electrons occupy several levels from the first shell nearest the nucleus, K, through the seventh shell, Q, farthest from the nucleus.In terms of a more refined, quantum-mechanical model, the K–Q shells are … Areas covered include atomic structure, physical properties, atomic interaction, thermodynamics, identification, atomic size, crystal structure, history, abundances, and nomenclature. It occurs in some nickel and copper ores along with some native deposits, mostly in South Africa, which accounts for 80% of the world production. Platinum is one of the least reactive metals. [19], Platinum is an extremely rare metal,[20] occurring at a concentration of only 0.005 ppm in Earth's crust. Still have questions? Save. The electron configuration describes where the electrons are inside orbitals. Chabaneau succeeded in removing various impurities from the ore, including gold, mercury, lead, copper, and iron. Element Platinum (Pt), Group 10, Atomic Number 78, d-block, Mass 195.084. Each element has a unique atomic structure that is influenced by its electronic configuration, which is the distribution of electrons across different orbitals of an atom. 198Pt can undergo alpha decay, but its decay has never been observed (the half-life is known to be longer than 3.2×1014 years); therefore, it is considered stable. Heating this ammonium salt in the presence of hydrogen reduces it to elemental platinum. It is the only stable isotope with a non-zero spin; with a spin of 1/2, 195Pt satellite peaks are often observed in 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy (i.e., Pt-phosphine and Pt-alkyl complexes). It is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, silverish-white transition metal. What is Electron Configuration? Electron configurations are the summary of where the electrons are around a nucleus. (1) xenon (3) platinum (2) silicon (4) hydrogen: 3 : which is a metal? [13] It is also attacked by chlorine, bromine, iodine, and sulfur. 1s 2. As we learned earlier, each neutral atom has a number of electrons equal to its number of protons. By itself, it has various applications in photography, zinc etchings, indelible ink, plating, mirrors, porcelain coloring, and as a catalyst. Alloying this impure platinum residue called "plyoxen" with gold was the only solution at the time to obtain a pliable compound, but nowadays, very pure platinum is available and extremely long wires can be drawn from pure platinum, very easily, due to its crystalline structure, which is similar to that of many soft metals. Palladium can be said to be doubly anomalous. An electron configuration can quickly and simply tell a reader how many electron orbitals an atom has as well as the number of electrons populating each of its orbitals. [68][69] In addition to laboratory uses, Platinum Resistance Thermometry (PRT) also has many industrial applications, industrial standards include ASTM E1137 and IEC 60751. [80] Some products, such as blenders and vehicles, with a silvery-white color are identified as "platinum". Platinum finds use in jewellery, usually as a 90–95% alloy, due to its inertness. 2 0. benales. Platinum atoms have 78 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.32.17.1. Platinum is a chemically stable element as it is one of the least reactive metals (Nobel metal). [7], As of 2021, the value of platinum is around $36.00 per gram ($1,120 per troy ounce). The NIST manufactured the wires from platinum bar stock with a chemical purity of 99.999% by weight). [21][22] It is sometimes mistaken for silver. Ammonium chloroplatinate can be converted to platinum by heating. Periodic Table Exceptions To Know. 190Pt and 198Pt are predicted to have energetically favorable double beta decay paths. The specific layer he found, named the Merensky Reef, contains around 75% of the world's known platinum. [9] Platinum is more ductile than gold, silver or copper, thus being the most ductile of pure metals, but it is less malleable than gold. [39], Zeise's salt, containing an ethylene ligand, was one of the first organometallic compounds discovered. The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral platinum is [Xe].4f 14.5d 9.6s 1 and the term symbol is 3 … Principal Energy Level Definition . [31], Hexachloroplatinic acid mentioned above is probably the most important platinum compound, as it serves as the precursor for many other platinum compounds. This gives two electrons in an s subshell, six electrons in a p subshell, ten electrons in a d subshell and fourteen electrons in an f subshell. In 1758, he was sent to superintend mercury mining operations in Huancavelica.[52]. Chabeneau realized the infusibility of platinum would lend value to objects made of it, and so started a business with Joaquín Cabezas producing platinum ingots and utensils. Nonbonding Electron Definition. The cod complex and the halides are convenient starting points to platinum chemistry. These two impurities are thus removed by running an electromagnet over the mixture. Platinum does oxidize, forming PtO2, at 500 °C; this oxide can be easily removed thermally. GOP delegate films himself breaking into Capitol. [42] (Side effects of cisplatin include nausea and vomiting, hair loss, tinnitus, hearing loss, and nephrotoxicity. You have stumbled upon a special case. Platinum atoms have 78 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.32.17.1. )[43][44], Dichloro(cycloocta-1,5-diene)platinum(II), Archaeologists have discovered traces of platinum in the gold used in ancient Egyptian burials as early as 1200 BC. Quiz. Its physical characteristics and chemical stability make it useful for industrial applications. N2+ 3H2→2NH3How many grams of hydrogen, H2, are necessary to react completely with 50.0g of nitrogen, N2? 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 Preview this quiz on Quizizz. The most important thing to remember is that electrons fill orbitals from lowest energy to highest energy. [60] Unprecipitated hexachloroplatinate(IV) may be reduced with elemental zinc, and a similar method is suitable for small scale recovery of platinum from laboratory residues. Electron Configuration Chart. Its name is derived from the Spanish term platino, meaning "little silver". This started what is known as the "platinum age" in Spain. The numbers of electrons that can occupy each shell and each subshell arise from the equations of quantum mechanics, [2] in particular the Pauli exclusion principle , which states that no two electrons in the same atom can have the same values of the four quantum … Platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum and as alloy with the other platinum-group metals and iron mostly. In this case the 5d orbital is shielded better by the full 4f orbital in Pt, so it is lower energy than the 6s orbital. Introduction to the Aufbau Principle in Chemistry. There are 118 elements in the periodic table. Platinum is a member of the platinum group of elements and group 10 of the periodic table of elements. ? Platinum is used as an alloying agent for various metal products, including fine wires, noncorrosive laboratory containers, medical instruments, dental prostheses, electrical contacts, and thermocouples. 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